Poststimulation time interval-dependent effects of motor cortex anodal tDCS on reaction-time task performance

Authors: Molero-Chamizo A. et al. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) induces long-term potentiation-like plasticity, which is associated with long-lasting effects on different cognitive, emotional, and motor performances. Specifically, tDCS applied over the motor cortex is considered to improve reaction time in simple and complex tasks. The timing of tDCS relative to task performance could […]

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Studying and modifying brain function with non-invasive brain stimulation

Authors: Polanía R; Nitsche MA; Ruff CC. In the past three decades, our understanding of brain-behavior relationships has been significantly shaped by research using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques. These methods allow non-invasive and safe modulation of neural processes in the healthy brain, enabling researchers to directly study how experimentally altered neural activity causally affects […]

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Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation: Safety, ethical, legal regulatory and application guidelines

Authors: Antal A. et al. Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears to be safe. No serious adverse events (SAEs) have been reported so far in over 18,000 sessions […]

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Basic and functional effects of transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES)—An introduction

Authors: Yavari F; Jamil A; Mosayebi Samani M; Vidor LP; Nitsche MA. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been gaining increased popularity in human neuroscience research during the last years. Among the emerging NIBS tools is transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), whose main modalities are transcranial direct, and alternating current stimulation (tDCS, tACS). In tES, a small […]

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The application of tDCS for the treatment of psychiatric diseases

Authors: Kuo MF; Chen PS; Nitsche MA. Neuroplasticity represents the dynamic structural and functional reorganization of the central nervous system, including its connectivity, due to environmental and internal demands. It is recognized as a major physiological basis for adaption of cognition and behaviour, and, thus, of utmost importance for normal brain function. Cognitive dysfunctions are […]

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What Effect Does tDCS Have on the Brain? Basic Physiology of tDCS

Authors: Jamil A; Nitsche MA. Purpose of the ReviewTranscranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can effectively modulate a wide range of clinical and cognitive outcomes by modulating cortical excitability. Here, we summarize the main findings from both animal and human neurophysiology literature, which have revealed mechanistic evidence for the acute and neuroplastic after-effects of tDCS. Recent […]

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An algorithmic information theory of consciousness

Authors: G. Ruffini Providing objective metrics of conscious state is of great interest across multiple research and clinical fields—from neurology to artificial intelligence. Here we approach this challenge by proposing plausible mechanisms for the phenomenon of structured experience. In earlier work, we argued that the experience we call reality is a mental construct derived from […]

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Repeated stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex in patients in minimally conscious state: A sham-controlled randomized clinical trial

Authors: Huang W; Wannez S; Fregni F; Hu X; Jing S; Martens G; He M; Di H; Laureys S; Thibaut A Patients in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS e recov- ery of eyes opening while no behavioral sign of consciousness [1]) and in minimally conscious state (MCS e recovery of reproducible purposeful behaviors [2]) have no access to conventional rehabili- tation program, apart from pharmacological or […]

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Controlled clinical trial of repeated prefrontal tDCS in patients with chronic minimally conscious state

Authors: Aurore Thibaut; Sarah Wannez; Anne-Francoise Donneau; Camille Chatelle; Olivia Gosseries; Marie-Aurélie Bruno; Steven Laureys Objectives: To assess the effects of repeated transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) sessions on the level of consciousness in chronic patients in minimally conscious state (MCS). Methods: In this randomized double-blind sham-controlled crossover study, we enrolled 16 patients in chronic MCS. For 5 consecutive days, each patient […]

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Models, networks and algorithmic complexity

Authors: Ruffini, G I aim to show that models, classification or generating functions, invariances and datasets are algorithmically equivalent concepts once properly defined, and provide some concrete examples of them. I then show that a) neural networks (NNs) of different kinds can be seen to implement models, b) that perturbations of inputs and nodes in NNs […]

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